Volume 1 (2), November 2002

ISSN 1476-413X



Migration in Europe: Challenges to Citizenship (pp. 82-88)

Maria I. Baganha


Family Relations in Lisbon’s Business Elite (pp. 89-110)

Antónia Pedroso de Lima


Cultural Differences and Hetero-ethnicization in Portugal: The Perceptions of White and Black People (pp. 111-128)

Jorge Vala

Diniz Lopes

Marcus Lima

Rodrigo Brito


Women under Salazar’s Dictatorship (pp. 129-146)

Anne Cova

António Costa Pinto

Book reviews:
Pinto, António Costa, The Blue Shirts: Portuguese fascists and the New State, Boulder: Social Science Monographs (2000), 271pp. Reviewed by Manuel Baiôa, University of Évora.

João de Pina Cabral and António Pedroso de Lima (eds.), Elites: choice, leadership and succession, Oxford: Berg (2000). Reviewed by Richard Dunphy, University of Dundee.

Anna Bosco, Comunisti: transformazioni di partito in Italia, Spagna e Portogallo, Bologna: Il Mulino (2000), 334 pp. Reviewed by James Newell, University of Salford.


Migration in Europe: Challenges to Citizenship  


The world’s population is currently six billion people, 80 percent of whom live in developing areas, and 50 percent live under the absolute poverty line.  Available forecasts indicate that soon 90 percent of all population growth will take place in these same developing areas where today 80 percent of the world population is already concentrated. The political answer of Europe from the 1980s onwards to the demographic unbalances of the world and to the movements of escape from violence from developing regions has been an increasing closure of its borders to the inflow of economic migrants and an extreme reluctance to take in refugees and asylum seekers. In this work I will discuss the European migratory experience and its current migratory situation. I will attribute the current situation to a marked rupture between immigrants’ and refugees’ individual rights and European collective interests.


Family Relations in Lisbon’s Business Elite


High status groups in Portuguese society constitute a social context in which familial relations are of great importance, both at the level of family members’ daily agency and on the far broader scale of their social and professional relations. I will analyse in this article the way familial relations become important processes by which an elite social position may be maintained. My argument is based on fieldwork I carried out on seven leading business families in Lisbon who own large firms in operation for at least three generations. This research has showned that the processes by which these families manage to remain majority shareholders and in the top management position in the large companies they have owned for several generations is due, to a great extent, to the fact that these economic investments are considered the symbolic materialisation of a familial project. It is by means of carefully managing familial relations that those involved in these projects are able to ensure and reproduce their belonging to Portugal’s financial and social upper set. This argument is illustrated throughout my research into the processes by which the leading families in Portugal’s economic setting before the democratic revolution in 1974 have recovered their top financial and social positions in Portugal today.


Cultural differences and hetero-ethnicization in Portugal: the perceptions of White and Black people


An analysis of some socio-psychological processes of discrimination against black people is presented. This analysis is framed on the hypothesis according to which cultural categories are now functional equivalents of racial categories. Folk-cultural categories offer criteria that allow the organization and the accentuation of differences between human groups, and sustain the implicit process that transforms difference into inferiority (the process of hetero-ethnicization). In favour of this hypothesis, the first part of the paper analyses the main elements of social representations of differences between human groups based on the idea of human races and then the representations of differences based on cultural classifications. Empirical arguments are then presented. The authors revisit data showing that white Portuguese who accentuate the differences between themselves and black people are more discrimination oriented then ‘non-differentialists’. In the same vein, a study carried out on young black people living in Portugal shows that those who most believe they are perceived to be culturally different by the white Portuguese are also those who believe most to be discriminated against.


Women under Salazar’s Dictatorship


If the southern European dictatorships of the inter-war period have anything in common, it is their attitudes towards women (Bock and Cova 2002). Initiated during a period of democratization, of the emergence of feminist movements, and the significant increase of women in the labour market, all of these dictatorships paid homage to ‘women at home’, and glorified ‘motherhood’ and the family in its primordial function (Offen 1999; Bock 2001). These dictatorships were at the same time confronted with the ‘problem’ of the integration of women into politics. Some elevated this function to a nationalist goal and an important means of mobilizing their regimes. This article addresses Salazarism’s attitudes towards women and women’s organizations, providing some elements that may be used in comparisons with the other dictatorships (e.g. Italian Fascism) that inspired, to some extent, some of the Portuguese New State’s institutions.